1. For many singular nouns, the plural is formed by simply adding <s>.

        Here is an example: railway + s —> railways
      2. When a base ends in <s>, <x>, <o>, <ch>, <sh>, or <z>, or any time the plural adds another syllable, you add <-es> to make the plural.

        Here are some examples:
        fox - foxes
        pass - passes
        1. NB: For some bases ending in <o>, you just add <s> to make the plural, as in photos and pianos. Can you think of any more plural words ending in <os>?

      3. To make the plural of most (but not all) bases that end in <f> or <fe> , you change the <f> or <fe> to <v> and add <-es>.

        Here is an example: wolf - wolves
        1. NB: Some bases that end with <f> or <fe> simply add <s> to make the plural

          roof - roofs
          chief - chiefs
          giraffe - giraffes
      4. Some bases, such as sheep, do not change to make the plural, and the plurals of some other bases just need to be investigated or memorized.

        child
        aircraft  
        tooth
        salmon
        mouse
        goose  
        foot
        deer  
        ox  
        plateau  
        grouse
        oasis  
        trout
        moose
        grapefruit
        man
        woman
        scissors
        Japanese
      5. In compound names, the most important word is made plural.

        Examples:
        attorneys-general, daughters-in-law